The Theory of Constraints (TOC) is a management philosophy developed by Dr. Eliyahu Moshe Goldratt. According to Goldratt the strength of any chain, process, or system is dependent upon its weakest link. TOC is systemic and strives to identify constraints to system success and to effect the changes necessary to remove them. TOC takes a scientific approach to improvement. It hypothesizes that every complex system, including all processes, consists of multiple linked activities, one of which acts as a constraint upon the entire system.